Articles and Papers


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Archaeology

A Possible Creationist Perspective on the Tyrolean (Oetztaler) Ice Man
Author: Greg Beasley
Much attention has been given to the Tyrolean Ice Man since his discovery in 1991. To the evolutionist he is somewhat of an enigma; a resourceful and cultured individual from an area previously thought to be a Neolithic backwater….

Archaeological Data and the Dating of the Patriarchs
Author: John J. Bimson
The aim of the present paper is twofold: to examine the appropriateness of various archaeological periods as backgrounds to the patriarchal narratives, and to assess the arguments put forward on archaeological grounds for rejecting the view that the narratives reflect real conditions in an early period…

Bible Chronology Articles
Author: Curt Sewell
Articles relating to the age of the earth according to the Bible…

Iraq and the Bible
Author: Bryant G. Wood
Iraq is called the “Cradle of Civilization,” as evidence has been found there for the earliest writing system, urban centers, literature, metallurgy, science, medicine and business, as reflected in the Bible . Our modern culture has its roots in ancient Iraq. Biblical names for the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia include Shinar (ancient Sumer), Chaldea, and Babylon…

Is Mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia?
Author: Gordon Franz
This article will examine four aspects of the question regarding whether or not Mt. Sinai is located in Saudi Arabia. First, the credibility of the claims will be questioned. Second, the false assumptions by the proponents of Jebel al-Lawz will be disputed. Third, the Biblical evidence will be discussed. Fourth, the archaeological evidence will be examined.

Is there archaeological evidence of the Tower of Babel?
Author: John H. Walton
A paper on Babel, ziggurats and the history of Babylon.

Mt. Sinai is Not at Jebel El-Lawz in Saudi Arabia
Author: Gordon Franz
This paper examines three aspects of the identification of Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. First, the paper questions the credibility of the claims. Second, the paper disputes the false assumptions by the proponents of Jebel al-Lawz. Third, the paper examines the archaeological evidence.

The Relevance of Archaeology to the Study of Scripture
Author: Andrew S. Kulikovsky B.App.Sc(Hons)
The purpose of this paper is to show how the science of archaeology is relevant to the study of the Old and New Testaments.Thompson (1982) suggests two reasons why it is important to incorporate and accommodate the findings of archaeology when studying the Bible:
1. It can aid in the understanding and interpretation of the Biblical text. 2. It can provide evidence for the validation of events, civilisations and places described in the Bible.

The sixteen grandsons of Noah
Author: Harold Hunt
Secular history gives much evidence to show that the survivors of Noah’s Flood were real historical figures, whose names were indelibly carved on much of the ancient world…

Chinese writing proves Bible is God’s Word

Illustrations of the Chinese language\’s testimony to the events in the book of Genesis.
(See also http://www.bibleprobe.com/chinese.htm for a simplified explanation of the pictographs.)

Apologetics

Apologetics And The Bible
Author: Gary Futral
A short article explaining the need and purpose of Apologetics.

Apprising Ministries
Author: Ken Silva
The goal of AM is to provide sound reasons to believe in Jesus, the Christ as well as to defend the faith once delivered unto the saints from enemy attacks within the Church and from without. Modern “movements” are examined.

Cosmological Argument
Author: Bruce Reichenbach
The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type. It uses a general pattern of argumentation (logos) that makes an inference from certain alleged facts about the world (cosmos) to the existence of a unique being, generally identified with or referred to as God. Among these initial facts are that the world came into being, that the world is contingent in that it could have been other than it is, or that certain beings or events in the world are causally dependent or contingent.

Historical Reliability of the Gospels
Author: Mark D Roberts
A 15 part series on the reliability of the Gospel.

Logic in Apologetics
Author: Matt Slick
Logic is typically very important in apologetics. To defend the faith, the Christian must use truth, facts, and reason appropriately and prayerfully. The Christian should listen to objections and make cogent and rational comments in direct response to the issues raised.

The Nature and Origin of the Bible
Author: Howard Taylor
Our understanding of the Bible can only come when we use it for its purpose namely to lead us to personal knowledge of God. If we resist such life changing knowledge we will never be able to assess the truth of the Bible. We cannot be detached observers or listeners…

The origins of life: One reason why I know there is a God active in our world
Author: Dr. Gerald Schroeder
A Christian Physicist’s view of creation.

The Uniqueness of Creation Week
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Intimidated perhaps by modern science, many Christians today have assumed that Genesis One is figurative or poetic in its language, when in fact the Hebrew is not poetry but precise prose, and it is indeed packed full of detail. The opening chapters of the Bible might be likened to a modern computer software program which comes to us on diskette in a compressed format…

Bible Studies

1 Peter: The Life That Lasts
Author: Greg Brown
Why have so many of us lost the joy of our salvation? Why have so many of us lost our praise and, instead, walk around sad, depressed, angry, and complaining about the events in our life? How can we again have our joy?

Crash Course in Jewish History
Author: Jewish History.org
The Bible and history from a Jewish perspective… Of interest to any student of the Bible!

Angelology: The Doctrine of Angels
Author: J. Hampton Keathley III
The study of angels or the doctrine of angelology is one of the ten major categories of theology developed in many systematic theological works. The tendency, however, has been to neglect it. This, however, is a very comprehensive study of angels.

Angels, God’s Ministering Spirits
Author: J. Hampton Keathley III
A thorough study of the subject of angels – what are they what do they do. Theologians have often viewed angels as a very difficult subject. Why? Because, while there is abundant mention of angels in the Bible, the nature of this revelation is without the same kind of explicit description we often find with other subjects developed in Scripture: Every reference to angels is incidental to some other topic…

Baalism in Canaanite Religion and Its Relation to Selected Old Testament Texts
Author: Greg Herrick
The following paper attempts in a cursory way to present the Ugaritic pantheon and its relationship to a few passages from the Old Testament. The paper is divided up into three main sections: 1) the sources for understanding the Canaanite pantheon, 2) the gods of the Canaanite pantheon, with special emphasis on Baal; 3) the nature and works of Baal and the Baal cycle, and 4) the relationship of the Ras Shamra texts to four OT references as a brief way of demonstrating the use of Ugaritic material for OT study.

Does God Need A Temple?
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Primitive religions are replete with examples of buildings and shrines as a house or shrine to an idol or a god. But the God revealed in the Bible is fundamentally different than the gods of the nations. He does not need houses or temples to dwell in—the entire universe is God\’s house…

Demonism in Jewish/Hellenistic Literature and its Relation to Mark 5
Author: Greg Herrick
The purpose of this paper is simply to interact with some extra-biblical sources in order to demonstrate how they might interface with Scripture and aid us in our understanding of it. As such it stands as a test case to encourage all of us to better acquaint ourselves with this extra-biblical material. Several extra-biblical references will be cited and compared and contrasted with the Biblical record.

An Introduction to the Opening Chapters of Genesis
Author: Lambert Dolphin
All the great themes of the Bible have their origins in Genesis, “The Book of Beginnings.” The first appearance of a word, a subject, or a theme deserves special note throughout Genesis. Biblical themes come back together in the Book of the Revelation, like trains rushing into Grand Central Station from all points of the compass (J. Vernon McGee).

Evidences for the Resurrection
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
Why were these early Christians willing to face death for their belief in Jesus Christ? It was because they were convinced of the historical fact of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and that this proved without a doubt that Jesus Christ was the Son of God and the one and only Savior of the world. And, so for them, death was not the end. The resurrection is a historical fact–not just some philosophical ideal or idea.

Examples of Modern Textual Criticism
Author: Dr Floyd Nolen Jones
Has the authority of Scripture been greatly undermined; does it no longer command immediate unquestioned obedience? We are not decrying true scholarship. We are challenging conservatives to make sure that their definition of scholarship comes from the Holy Spirit, not from the world.

Did Christ Descend Into Hell?
Author: Lambert Dolphin
It is because the sufferings of Christ extend out of time into eternity that some students of the Bible have come to believe that Christ actually physically descended into hell…

False Theories Against the Resurrection of Christ
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
Many theories have been advanced, attempting to show that the resurrection of Jesus Christ was a fraud. Historians have to become anti-historical to invent some of their ideas…

Friday or Wednesday?
Author: Chuck Missler
The observances of Good Friday and Easter Sunday have perpetuated the traditional chronology that the crucifixion took place on a Friday… There are some, however, that feel this tradition is at variance with the Scriptural record…

Genesis: Fact or Fiction?
Author: Joe Byczko
That the Genesis account of man\’s creation and fall contain in full the redemption of man through Jesus Christ. Further, that this plan is in systematic agreement with the entire bible. Marriage; Sexual relationships; Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Tree of life; Can mankind be descended from animals?

Genesis: From Paradise to Patriarchs
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
This 50-lesson series is an ideal Bible study on the book of Genesis from a trusted resource site.

Historical Backgrounds to the Gospels and Life of Jesus
Author: Darrell L. Bock
A Listing of Extra-Biblical Citations attesting to Jesus and the Gospels.

Junia Among the Apostles: The Double Identification Problem in Romans 16:7
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
There are two major interpretive problems in this verse, both of which involve the identification of Junia(s). (a) Is Junia(s) a man’s name or a woman’s name? (b) What is this individual’s relation to the apostles?

Is 2 Peter Peter’s?
Author: Wayne Stiles
It may be conclusively stated that there is no definitive evidence against the authenticity of 2 Peter in spite of the fact that the majority of scholarship today rejects apostolic authorship…

Jesus’ Death: Six Hours of Eternity on the Cross
Author: Various authors
A compilation of various aspects of Jesus’ death on the cross; His struggle, the time and date and the inscription…

Jesus, The Avenger of Blood
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Who is Jesus? Some of the contrasting glimpses of the Person of Jesus as they are to be found in the Bible…

Jesus, Son of God, Son of Man
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Just who was and is Jesus?

Jewish Wedding Traditions/The Relationship between Jesus Christ and his Bride the Church Author: Robert Probert The author compares the Jewish wedding service with the relationship between Christ and His bride…

Jesus, Religion, and True Spirituality: A Look at Four Beatitudes
Author: Greg Herrick
The New Age, with its blend of American marketing, Eastern mysticism, and the inclusive nature of its belief paradigm, is growing rapidly in the US. People are starving for reality and it appears to offer them what they’re looking for. There is someone who knows you and loves you. There is someone who has spoken definitively into our darkness. He knows the games we play and blind alleys we prefer. Nonetheless, for those who want to listen, Jesus wants to speak.

John Mark in Acts: A New Testament Jonah?
Author: Greg Herrick
Simply put, it appears that he was uncomfortable with the Gentile mission and preaching the gospel to non-Jews. He was sent out by the Spirit, but once in the field began to doubt his “calling.”Further, it may well be that upon his return to Jerusalem John Mark discussed Paul’s “work” among the Gentiles which incited several from among the Pharisaic wing of the Jerusalem church to descend on Antioch in hopes of “straightening out” the church as it were…

Jonah: The Prodigal Prophet
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
We all have stereotypes, and many of these should probably be shattered as well. Jonah is a prophet who does not fit into the stereotypical mold of our thinking when it comes to a prophet of God. He is decidedly different from the other prophets which we find in the Scriptures. The Book of Jonah is written to shatter the stereotype which we have of prophets, especially the prophet Jonah.

Josephus’ Writings and Their Relation to the New Testament
Author: Greg Herrick
These works provide us with knowledge of the New Testament era which we otherwise would not possess. In short, Josephus has contributed to our understanding of the social, political, historical (including chronological data) and religious backgrounds of the New Testament.

Justification by Faith: The Case of Abraham and David (Romans 4:1-8)
Author: Hampton Keathley IV
Paul has demonstrated logically and scripturally that men are justified by faith. The core issue in this section draws on the first three chapters which teach that men’s works cannot stand up under the scrutiny of God. If men want God to “reckon” to them according to their works, they will be condemned…

Messianic Prophecies
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
One of the authenticating proofs for the inspiration of the Bible, which at the same time authenticate the claims of Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the only Savior of the world, are the many fulfilled prophecies which find their fulfillment in the person and life of Christ, Jesus of Nazareth…

Keys to the Song of Solomon
Author: Lambert Dolphin
An interpretation of the Song of Songs; he love story of a man and a woman, God’s love for Israel his wife …

Lazarus and the Rich Man
Author: L Ray Smith
An interesting and provocative new perspective on this well known parable. Like all the others, this parable has great and enormous consequences. This is not the story of a single, nameless rich man and one poor beggar in the street named Lazarus. Did “The Rich man” typify Judah? (He had 7 half brothers and 5 full brothers!) Did “Lazarus” typify the Gentiles? (Despised by the Jews.

Notes on the Nephilim: The Giants of Old
Author: Various Authors
When men began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. Then the LORD said, “My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days will be a hundred and twenty years.” (Genesis 6:1-4)

Ruth: A Romance of Redemption
Author: Chuck Missler
Why was Jesus born in Bethlehem? Why was David associated with the town of Bethlehem? The answers are in this little four-chapter book…

Signs in the Stars? (The gospel in the stars?)
Author: Lambert Dolphin Malcolm Bowden, Barry Setterfield and Helen Fryman.
Were the positions of the constellations and the alignments of the planets throughout the year intended by God to be teaching tools for His people? Is Babylonian (and the later Egyptian and then Greek) astrology a corruption of what was once a pure proto-Hebrew star-chart system intended for spiritual enlightenment?

Soteriology – The Doctrine of Salvation
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
The word “salvation” is the translation of the Greek word soteria which is derived from the word soter meaning “savior.” In theology, however, its major use is to denote a work of God on behalf of men, and as such it is a major doctrine of the Bible which includes redemption, reconciliation, propitiation, conviction, repentance, faith, regeneration, forgiveness, justification, sanctification, preservation, and glorification.

Studies in Revelation
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III ,.
A 31 chapter study of the Book of Revalation.

Studies in the Book of Daniel
Author: Robert Dick Wilson
This volume is concerned especially with the objections made to the historical statements contained in the book of Daniel, and treats incidentally of chronological, geographical, and philosophical questions.

Studies in the Life of Elijah
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
This series of lessons is a devotional study on the life of the prophet Elijah. The objective is to provide practical insight into the doctrinal and spiritual significance and meaning of his life. As a man of like passions with us, his life sheds light on the greatness of the God of the Bible, His purposes, and His love and care for His people in a world in desperate need of the saving message of Jesus Christ.

The Captain of the Lord’s Army (Joshua 5:13-15)
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
In this passage, Joshua had an encounter with the living Logos, the very revelation of God. It was an encounter that lifted a great burden from his shoulders…

The Christmas Star
Dr. Hugh Ross
For centuries people have wondered what kind of “star” led the magi from the East to Jerusalem in search of Israel’s “Anointed One.” The only known account of the wise men and of the astronomical event that spurred them to action is found in the book of Matthew.Author: Dr. Hugh Ross For centuries people have wondered what kind of “star” led the magi from the East to Jerusalem in search of Israel’s “Anointed One.” The only known account of the wise men and of the astronomical event that spurred them to action is found in the book of Matthew.

The Fourfold Gospel or A Harmony of the Four Gospels
Author: J. W. McGarvey, LL. D. and Philip Y. Pendleton, A. B.
By the use of pronounced black letter type we enable to reader to follow the Scripture text, omitting the comments if he chooses. But by thus combining the four Gospels and interjecting the comment into the text, we have produced the most labor-saving, time-saving, condensed commentary ever placed before the people, resulting in a complete chronological life of Christ, divided into titled sections and sub-divisions, with comments injected in the text; especially designed for the use of Sunday-school teachers and advanced pupils.
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The Genealogy from Adam to Jesus Christ
Author: Arthur C. Custance
The two genealogies of our Lord which together establish his absolute right to the throne of David, both by blood relationship through Mary and by title through Mary\’s husband, bear close examination. For they show how the two lines were preserved at one particularly critical period when almost all family relationships in Israel were being disrupted. This was at the time of the Captivity in Babylon. It is shown in a standard genealogy chart as a kind of “wasp-waist” joining the head and the body of the genealogy above and below Zerubbabel…

The Issue of Forgiveness in the Sermon on the Mount
Author: Greg Herrick
“Is my forgiveness in Christ conditional or unconditional?” that is, “Is it based on my doing anything good or worthy?”

The King James Version Defended
Author: Edward F. Hills
NOT merely a “KJV Only” defence but an apologetic for the inspiration of Scripture, a brief history of pagan religions and of the Christian church, a discussion of Biblical and textual criticism, and a history of the various N.T. texts. Very good background material for study purposes. Read online or download pdf.

The Snake in the Garden – Who is Satan?
Author: James Montgomery Boice
Although there are great and seemingly impenetrable mysteries connected with the fall of Satan and man, there are nevertheless several passages in the Bible that probably refer to Satan’s fall and therefore throw light on it and on sin in general. I acknowledge that they do not necessarily refer to Satan; our observations on them must be tentative.

To Bow or Not to Bow? (An Essay on Daniel 3)
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
How does this chapter function within the overall picture of the book? That is, How does it contribute either to prophecy or to the response to prophecy by some world leader? Or does it do this at all?

Where was the Birth Place of the Lord Jesus?
Author: Cooper P Abrams III
Although the New Testament does not tell us where in Bethlehem Jesus was born, the Old Testament does. Micah 4:8 states, “And thou, O tower of the flock, the strong hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion; the kingdom shall come to the daughter of Jerusalem.” Thus the Old Testament clearly states that the Messiah would be born at the “tower of the flock”…

Who Changed the Sabbath to Sunday?
What is the Biblical and historical truth on who changed the Sabbath to Sunday? Where in the Holy Bible is one legitimate scripture clearly stating the Sabbath was changed from Saturday to Sunday?

Anno Mundi
Author Mike Gascoigne
This site contains a wide range of material on Biblical and Historical topics often connecting the two.

Biblical Ethics

101 uses of a dead baby
What is done with aborted fetuses and babies…

Abortion ‘after birth’? Medical ‘ethicists’ promote infanticide
Author: Jonathan Sarfati
A brief history of “legalized” infanticide and the modern equivalent. An increasing number of atheists are becoming more consistent. That is, they share with pro-lifers the correct belief that there is no real difference between born and unborn children. But their consistency moves in the opposite direction. Their callousness towards unborn life is extended to children already born.

Biblical Reflections on Modern Medicine
Author: Franklin E. (Ed) Payne, M.D.
Biblical Reflections on Modern Medicine was published six (6) times a year from January 1990 until July-August 2000. It was written by Franklin E. (Ed) Payne, M.D. with significant contributions by Hilton P. Terrell, Ph.D., M.D. Its length was eight (8) pages (about 6500 words). Each issue begins with a lead article that is usually longer and more substantive than the other articles which range in length from one paragraph to a full page (about 800 words).

Christians And The Copyright Law
Author: Jack Decker
Though most Christians would agree that we should not break the law of the land, one has to wonder about a law that can have the effect of inhibiting men from singing praises to God, or even from understanding the Bible. The Bible? Yes, in case you didn’t realize it, all modern English-language versions of the Bible are copyrighted. Only the King James version of the Bible is not copyrighted…

Christians Criticizing Christians
Author: Bob and Gretchen Passantino
When it comes to Christian criticizing Christians, the battle lines are drawn. But are the lines biblical? It is wrong to publicly evaluate the teachings of a Christian pastor, expose the immorality of a Christian leaders, or tell the truth about a popular Christian media figure?

Climate Craze — Making Biblical Sense of the Man-Made Global Warming Debate!
Author: Mark Christopher
The headlines in the media have been relentless and extreme in their pursuit to convince us all that a climate apocalypse is just around the next corner. We have been told that unless we “act now”.  So what are Bible-believing Christians to make of all the scaremongering rhetoric? Further, in light of the Bible, what should Christians think about the whole man-made climate change debate? Is the sky really falling this time around? If so, how should we respond?

Cloning: Right or Wrong?
Author: Werner Gitt
How do we judge cloning according to the Bible? In answering, we will first give some biological background…

Human Rights and the Homosexual
Author: Ted Wise
If we respond to the homosexual issue as if they are indeed a people, whether for or against, then a small group of crafty individuals will have hoodwinked us all into indirectly declaring that there is a third sex, a minority whose rights are being denied, and who as such are entitled to all rights and privileges inherent in being such a group…

Notes on the Problem of Evil
Author: Ron Rhodes, PhD
W hat is evil? What is the origin of evil? What is God\’s ultimate purpose in allowing evil? Shouldn\’t God do away with all evil IMMEDIATELY? Does the existence of evil prove God is finite? What should our attitude be in the face of evil?

The Destruction of Marriage Precedes the Death of a Culture
Author: Rev. Louis P. Sheldon
Sociologists and anthropologists who have studied the death of civilizations have found that rampant sexual immorality, feminism, and homosexuality have been factors in destroying nations…

The Meaning of Sodom and Gomorrah
What has happened in the last half-century is a world-wide sexual revolution. It is not only gays who have come out of the closet, heterosexual men and women are now taught even in school that regular sexual expression with any number of partners is normal and natural… Biblical standard of refraining from all sexual expression except within marriage have been thrown by the wayside.

Biblical Theology

“Christian Revolution in Latin America: The Changing Face of Liberation Theology”
Author: Ron Rhodes
This article, the first of a three-part series on liberation theology, will focus on the Latin American variety – examining its historical roots, growth, doctrine, and present status in the world. Primary emphasis will be on how the movement has changed since its emergence in the late 1960s. In Parts Two and Three respectively, I will examine the Black and feminist varieties.

An Introduction to Christian Belief: A Layman’s Guide
Author: Greg Herrick
Systematic theology, then, for our purposes, is the study of all facts about God and his work, from any and every source, but revealed primarily in the Bible, and brought together in a coherent and inter-related manner in order to instruct, encourage and guide the saints in godliness:For the development of one’s own understanding of God, truth, and the Christian faith. For explaining, defending, and applying Biblical truth in a non-Christian context.

An Outline of the “FACTS” of Arminisn vs. the “TULIP” of Calvinism
Author: Brian Abasciano and Martin Glynn
A short comparison of the salient points of Calvinism and Arminianism.

Common Assaults on the Gospel
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
Our message is the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, the message of salvation through His person and work. That sounds simple enough, but it is not nearly as simple as it sounds. The simple message, “believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and you shall be saved,” has been assaulted from early on…

Coptic interpretations of the Fourth Ecumenical Council and other Coptic viewpoints
Author: Fr. Matthias F. Wahba
Since the Council of Chalcedon, the non-Chalcedonians have been accused of Eutychianism, and called “Monophysites”, meaning that they believe in one single nature of our Lord Jesus Christ. They never accepted this idea considering it a heresy. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the issue.

Covenant theology
Author: Wikipedia
As a framework for biblical interpretation, covenant theology stands in contrast to dispensationalism in regard to the relationship between the Old Covenant with national Israel and the New Covenant in Christ’s blood. That such a framework exists appears to be at least feasible since from the earliest time of the Church the Jewish Bible has been known as the Old Testament (or Covenant) in contrast to the Christian addition which has been known as the New Testament (or Covenant)

An Introduction to Covenant Theology
Author: Dr. J. Ligon Duncan
A study of Covenant Theology… “The whole function of the covenant, and especially of the covenant signs, is to assure us of God’s favor.”

God and the Angels
Author: Lambert Dolphin
All that you ever wanted to know about angels…

Institutes of the Christian Religion
Author: Calvin, John
Extremely important for the Protestant Reformation, the Institutes has remained important for Protestant theology for almost five centuries. Written to “aid those who desire to be instructed in the doctrine of salvation,” the Institutes, which follows the ordering of the Apostle\’s Creed, has four parts…

Introduction to the Life and Ministry of Jesus Christ
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
When we come to the Christ of the Gospels we are at the fountainhead of the New Testament and the fulfillment of much of the Old…

Mischievous Angels or Sethites?
Author: Chuck Missler
Why did God send the judgment of the Flood in the days of Noah? Far more than simply a historical issue, the unique events leading to the Flood are a prerequisite to understanding the prophetic implications of our Lord’s predictions regarding His Second Coming.

Mystery Truths of Scripture
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
The Biblical Significance and Use of the Word “Mystery”. In most cases in the New Testament it refers to church truth which was not known in Old Testament times, but has become revealed in the New Testament.

One Baptism in Ephesians 4:5
Author: Hampton Keathley IV
The meaning of “one baptism” in Ephesians 4:5 and whether it refers to water or Spirit baptism has been much debated through the years…

Questions Cessationists Should Ask: A Biblical Examination of Cessationism
Author: Charles Powell
A balanced examination of the arguments for and against Cessationism. (Have miracles ceased or does God still do miracles?)

Reasoning Through Romans
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
It is hardly possible to stress too vigorously the importance of the Book of Romans. I commence this study in Romans with anticipation and eagerness, wondering what great things God will do in each of our lives as this book becomes a part of our understanding and experience.

Resting in God’s Sovereignty (Proverbs 16:1-4)
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
David praises God for His blessings and compassion as a loving and forgiving father for his children. He begins this call with a declaration of God’s sovereignty for it is God’s sovereignty that gives Him the absolute freedom to do what He does in His blessings and showing compassion to frail and temporal humanity.

Satanology
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
This is an in depth study of Satan; his origin, names, attributes, history etc. The career of Satan, which extends from the dateless past, before man\’s creation (Job. 38:7), to eternity future, is inclusive in the Bible and forms a major and an important doctrine of the Word of God.

Satisfaction and Chalcedonian Christology
Author: Mark Peterson
We wish to discover first, what is the nature of the rift between God and His creation, second, what is required for the rift to be patched, and third, what must be true of Christ if He is to be the one to patch the rift. In particular we will look at man’s fall.

Supersessionism, fulfillment theology, and replacement theology
Author: Wikipedia
Supersessionism, fulfillment theology, and replacement theology are terms long used for the biblical interpretation that the Church supersedes or replaces Israel in God’s plan, and that the New Covenant nullifies the Biblical promises made to Israel…

Textual Criticism 101: Theological, Faith-Based versus Naturalistic, Rationalistic
Author: Louis Kole
I submit there are two reasons we’ve lost faith in the authenticity and authority of the Word of God. One, the methods of naturalistic textual criticism is beyond our knowledge, so we defer to its claims of  “scientific” scholarship. Secondly, its validity is affirmed by our peers whose counsel we’ve come to trust and we “believe” on their faith (professors, fellow pastors).

The Atonement in Lucan Theology in Recent Discussion
Author: Greg Herrick

The study of Luke-Acts has received considerable attention over the last thirty or more years. Studies have brought to light questions regarding redaction criticism and Luke’s use of sources,1 the reliability of Luke as a historian and the relation of Acts to Paul’s letters and travels,2 the textual problems in this two-volume work as well as the theology of Luke-Acts.

The Authority of the Word
Author: Ray Steadman
As Christians (and I am speaking now only to Christians), we have no right to hold a different view of Scripture than that held by Jesus himself. That is the first fact we must hold in mind as we come to this subject of the authority of the Word. To put it another way, the authority of the Bible rests squarely upon the authority of Jesus Christ himself.

The Apostle Peter on Civil Obedience: An Exegesis of 1 Peter 2:13-17
Author: Greg Herrick
This study seeks to present an interpretation of Peter’s injunctions to the churches mentioned in 1 Peter 1:1 concerning their relation to the state and then to make a comparison with Paul’s commands concerning the state in 1 Peter 2:13-17. The question that the study seeks to answer concerns the relation of the two passages…

The Ascension (Luke 24:31; Acts 1:1-11)
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
While the ascension may not be prominent in the gospels, it is paramount in the book of Acts. While Luke did not emphasize it at the conclusion of his first book (Luke), he highlighted it at the beginning of his second volume (Acts)…

The Authorship of Second Peter
Author: Hampton Keathley IV
There has been much debate over the authorship of 2 Peter. Most conservative evangelicals hold to the traditional view that Peter was the author, but historical and literary critics have almost unanimously concluded that to be impossible…

The Comma Johanneum and Cyprian
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
“5:7 For there are three that testify, 5:8 the Spirit and the water and the blood, and these three are in agreement.” This longer reading is found only in eight late manuscripts, four of which have the words in a marginal note…

The Date and Destination of Galatians
Author: Greg Herrick
An attempt to resolve the issues of where this letter was sent, when it was written and its connections with the book of Acts.

The Doctrine of Rewards: The Judgment Seat (Bema) of Christ
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
One of the prominent doctrines of the New Testament is the Doctrine of Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ. It is a doctrine often ignored or, when taught, it is misrepresented because of the term “judgment” that is used in translating the Greek text…

The Eternal Purpose of God
Author: Graham Brodie
A Scriptural and scientific exposition of the purposes of God in the creation…

The Faith of Demons (James 2:19)
Author: John F. Hart
A natural reading of the epistle fails to uncover hints that a genuine Christian faith will by its very nature produce ongoing good works…

The Heavenly Veil Torn: Mark’s Cosmic “Inclusio”
Author: David Ulansey
Originally published in Journal of Biblical Literature 110:1 (Spring 1991). In the past few years, several different scholars have argued that there was a connection in the mind of the author of the Gospel of Mark between the tearing of the heavens at the baptism of Jesus (Mk 1:10) and the tearing of the temple veil at the death of Jesus (Mk 15:38..

The Judgments – (Past, Present, and Future)
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
A great deal of confusion exists with respect to the subject of God’s judgments and particularly regarding the final judgment. It is the purpose of this study to cover all the major judgments (past, present, and future) that we find in Scripture to help resolve this confusion.

The Miracles of Calvary
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
Surrounding Christ’s death on the cross, was a chain of miraculous events that gave tremendous testimony to (1) the uniqueness of Jesus Christ, (2) His claims as the Son of God, and (3) as a result, to the fact of the redemption that comes through faith in Him. Linked together they form an unbreakable chain of evidence that authenticates and declares Jesus Christ as truly the Son of God and the redemptive Savior of the world.

The Mosaic Law: Its Function and Purpose in the New Testament
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
The tension between the Law of the OT and the Grace of the NT

Towards a biblically inerrant chronology
Author: Alan Montgomery, b.sc.(hon)
A new biblical chronology is proposed which dates the exodus at 1591 BC.

Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?
Author: Jonathan Klawans
Was Jesus’ last meal with His disciples a passover meal, or was it simply a standard Jewish meal? The author presents a strong argument for the latter.

What is a Covenant? Covenants in the Bible
Author: Lambert Dolphin
A discussion of the various covenants in the Bible.

Who Was Jesus? Exploring the History of Jesus’ Life
Author: Robin Ngo, Megan Sauter — Editors
In this FREE eBook, examine fundamental questions about Jesus of Nazareth: As a teacher in first-century Galilee, he influenced thousands. Yet many questions today surround this enigmatic person. Where was he really born—Bethlehem or Nazareth? Did he marry? Is there evidence outside of the Bible that proves he actually walked the earth?

Creation Science

15 Questions for Evolutionists
Author: Don Batten
The 15 questions that evolutionists have not been able to answer.

Adam And The Animals
Author: Henry M. Morris, Ph.D
When God created the first man and woman, He told them to exercise “dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth” (Genesis 1:28). This divine stewardship of mankind over the animal kingdom, under its Creator, involves many responsibilities, and has never been withdrawn…

Christian Creation Theories Rooted in the Genesis Account and Their Underlying Assumptions
Author: Michael Janse van Rensburg.
The objective of this study is to provide the reader with a holistic theological understanding of the current popular Christian creation theories. This was done through identifying, analysing, and comparing the key teachings of these theories against a biblical exegesis of Genesis 1:1 – 2:3.

Cosmology in Genesis 1
Author: Glen Stewart
It is sobering to realize that the first verse of the Bible, which is one of the best known passages in the English language, quite obviously badly misinterprets or misreads the Hebrew original. Correcting the opening verse, it should read something like: “In beginning Elohim cut the spaces and the mass”…

Debating Scientific Origins: Can Intelligent Design be Supportively Involved in Natural Science Debates on the Origin of Life?
Author: Farr Williams, Michael Scott
This study endeavors to understand the writings of Ken Miller and Eugenie Scott in terms of their objections to Intelligent Design being involved in the Natural Science Debates on the Origin of Life.

Evidence for Creation now banned from UK religious education classes
Author: Dominic Statham
‘[the school] shall not make provision in the context of any subject for the teaching, as an evidence-based view or theory, of any view or theory that is contrary to established scientific and/or historical evidence and explanations.’ Hence, the only view of origins that can be presented to the youngsters as ‘evidenced based’ is the one that infers that the universe has ‘no purpose, no evil and no good, nothing but blind, pitiless indifference…

Evolutionary syncretism: a critique of Biologos
Author: Lita Cosner
The BioLogos Foundation purports to explore, promote and celebrate the integration of science and Christian faith,

Facts on Noah’s Ark
A number of interesting facts about the Ark and the flood.

Flood Models and Biblical Realism
Author: Jonathan Sarfati
Biblical creationists by definition believe in a globe-covering flood. But how this occurred has been a matter of intense debate within the creationist geologist community. Some general observations can be made from a theological, philosophic and scientific perspective…

How old is the earth?
Author: Dr. Jonathon Sarfati
Creationists ultimately date the earth using the chronology of the Bible. This is because they believe that this is an accurate eyewitness account of world history, which can be shown to be consistent with much data. The Bible states that man was made six days after creation, about 6,000 years ago. So a time-line of the world constructed on biblical data would have man almost at the beginning, not the end…

Is Genesis Poetry or Historic Narrative?
Author: Helen Fryman
One of the most common statements regarding Genesis today is that it is poetic, a myth about origins, metaphorical. As soon as these presuppositions are accepted, interpretations abound. We have the gap theories, the day-age theories, local flood theories, and a plethora of others which all depend on Genesis not being a Hebrew historical narrative…

Mitochondrial Eve and biblical Eve are looking good: criticism of young age is premature Author: Carl Wieland Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicates that all women have descended from a single woman, called mitochondrial Eve. This does not prove that she was the only woman alive at the time, but is consistent with it. High mutation rates indicate that this ancestor lived at about the time of the biblical Eve as well…

On Finding an Ice Age Book
Author: Bernard E. Northrup
Did Job live during the Ice Age?

On The Great Flood of Noah
Author: Lambert Dolphin
In informal exegesis of the fall and the flood with scientific imports and links to creation science articles.

Polonium Halos — Unrefuted Evidence for Earth’s Instant Creation
Author: Robert Gentry
Etched within Earth’s foundation rocks namely the granites, are beautiful microspheres of coloration, halos, produced by the radioactive decay of primordial polonium, which is known to have only a fleeting existence…

Science Deceptions
Summary: Was life created or just a random set of events? What are the facts? A look at Evolution and Creation as viable forms of science.

Syntax and Semantics in Genesis One
Author: Charles V. Taylor
New versions of the once popular ‘gap’ theory are now arising. The motive is the same–to accommodate an old universe (and Earth) into Genesis 1, but to still retain a recent, literal six-day Creation Week. However, correct exegesis with close attention to syntax and semantics, plus the recognition of no verb tenses in the Hebrew preclude any possible ‘reading’ of long ages into the Hebrew of the key texts, verses 1-3 and 14-16…

The “Days” of Creation in Genesis 1: Literal “Days” or Figurative “Periods / Epochs” of Time?
Author: Gerhard F. Hasel
The question of whether the six days of creation were actual 24-hour periods of time or only symbolic representations of millions of years has been debated for centuries. The following article is a thorough review of this issue. The historical background and the literary nature of the creation account are discussed in detail and related to a variety of contemporary interpretations. T

The Complexities of Time
Author: Various
The differing meanings of the concept of time, both ancient and modern and the Biblical view,,,,

The Complexity of the Genetic Code
Author: Various
Articles and discussions on the genetic code from a Biblical perspective…

The Controversy Continues: Speed of Light Slowing Down?
Author: Chuck Missler
Evidence suggesting that the velocity of light, c, has been slowing down throughout history was first reported by Barry Setterfield and Trevor Norman for some years. Now two physicists-Dr. Joao Magueijo, a Royal Society research fellow at Imperial College, London, and Dr. Andreas Albrecht, of the University of California at Davis-are proposing that, immediately after the universe was born, the speed of light may have been far faster than its present-day value of 186,000 miles per second.

The Creation and the Fall of Adam and Eve: Literal, Symbolic, or Myth?
Author: Mark Pretorius
The history of the fall recorded in Genesis chapters 2 and 3 is, for all intent and purpose, a literal history. It records facts which underlie the entire system of revealed truths. A correct theological understanding of the fall of Adam and Eve makes plain the fact that the characters in the narrative of the fall are literal characters, and not mythological.

The Deposition and Erosion of the Grand Canyon and It’s Clear Testimony Concerning the Canopy and the Age of the Earth Author: Bernard E. Northrup Th.D.
… once the creationist recognizes what the Bible reveals about five great Biblical, catastrophic events, suddenly he is faced with the remarkable similarity and correspondence chronologically and logically of the results of these five great Biblical events that one who has studied the physical data can readily trace in the physical record of the rocks…

The extinction of the dinosaurs
Author: Michael J. Oard
Dinosaur extinction is still a major enigma of earth history. In this review article, extinctions in the geological record will be briefly mentioned. Many of the imaginative theories for the extinction of the dinosaurs will also be presented…

THE GENESIS OF GEOLOGY
Author: Bernard E. Northrup, Th.D.
The atheistic tide of evolutionary thought has swept over the church like a giant tidal wave during the past one hundred fifty years. So destructive had been its onslaught that it appeared to many that the whole structure of the church was about to crumble, completely eroded away at its foundations…

The Geological Foundation
Author: Bernard E. Northrup Th.D.
This chapter explores the implications of further, extended “coincidental parallels” which one will find on attempting to compare the Precambrian deposit series with Genesis One through Six.

The missing Link in the Debate
Author: Isibiel Myrna Cohen
A rabbinical view of the age of the earth.

The Limits of Science
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Science cannot do everything, and it should really not surprise us if the old order falls and a new age enters. . A “merely physical” model of the universe has always proven inadequate. Sooner or later what was once thought “solid science” is seen to be fallacious and incomplete if God is left out of the equations…

Doctrines and Beliefs

28 Fundamental Beliefs of Seventh-day Adventists
Seventh-day Adventists accept the Bible as their only creed and hold certain fundamental beliefs to be the teaching of the Holy Scriptures. These beliefs, as set forth here, constitute the church’s understanding and expression of the teaching of Scripture.

An Exact Explosion of the Orthodox Faith
Author: St John Damascene
The beliefs of the Russian Orthodox Church

Annihilationism
Author: Jay Hess
One of three explanations for the the eternal destiny of the wicked; eternal separation, eternal suffering or eternal smoke. The “smoke” view is held by only a minority of persons, including a few conservative Bible scholars. Some consider this concept to be a heresy. A Discussion of the relevant Bible texts and what they tell us about our final destiny.

Annihilationism
Author: Wikipedia
In some religious groups of Christians who hold that the wicked will perish, annihilationism is the belief that sinners are destroyed, rather than tormented forever in “hell” as in the lake of fire. It is directly related to the doctrine of conditional immortality, the idea that a human soul is not immortal unless it is given eternal life. Annihilationism asserts that God will eventually destroy or annihilate the wicked…

Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics with Commentary
The 25 articles these affirmations and denials are presented as an expression of the results of their labours to clarify hermeneutical issues and principles.

Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy with Exposition
The “Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy” was produced at an international Summit Conference of evangelical leaders, held at the Hyatt Regency O\’Hare in Chicago in the fall of 1978.

Christian Conditionalism (Conditional Immortality)
Author: Wikipedia
In Christian theology, conditionalism or conditional immortality is a concept of special salvation in which the gift of immortality is attached to (conditional upon) belief in Jesus Christ.

Dominion Theology; What is it?
Author: Thomas Ice
DT advocates believe that dominion over every area of life has been restored by the first coming of Christ. Since we are now in the Kingdom (this is where the synonym for DT “Kingdom Now” arose), they believe the present task of the Church is to call believers to reclaim the rule of Christ on planet earth…

Evolutionary syncretism: a critique of Biologos
Author: Lita Cosner
BioLogos, founded in 2007 and funded with a grant from the theistic evolutionary Templeton foundation, declares on its home page that it “explores, promotes and celebrates the integration of science and Christian faith – with the emphasis on science… However, Ken Ham, a young-earth creationist, said “it is compromisers like Collins who cause people to doubt and disbelieve the Bible—causing them to walk away from the church…

On Dispensationalism
Author: Ray C. Stedman
Dispensation is not so much a period of time as it is a level of understanding, which increases gradually as men begin to grasp the truth that God has given. And it is this that Paul means is the process of a schoolmaster—starting you out on the kindergarten level with pictures about God, and moving you on until you see the real thing: an encounter with the person of Jesus Christ, the living God…

Seventh Day Adventists’ Fundamental Beliefs
Statement of Belief of the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Seventh-day Adventists accept the Bible as the only source of our beliefs. We consider our movement to be the result of the Protestant conviction Sola Scriptura…

The Five Articles of the Remonstrants
Author: Dennis Bratcher, ed.
Arminius’ answer to TULIP. While Arminius did not depart far from the Reformed position, he gave a larger place to the faith of the believer and came to a position of conditional predestination rather than the absolute predestination of Calvin and the double predestination of Beza.

Word of Faith Movement
Author: Russel Alexander Morris
This is an exceptional and thorough study of the origins, beliefs, leaders and the pros and cons of the Word of Faith movement. The full title of this 330 page dissertation is is: “A Biblical and Theological Analysis of Specific Tenets of Word of Faith Theology: Pastoral Implications for the Church Of God”

Exegesis

A Guide to Writing an Exegesis paper
Author: Barry L. Ross
As taught by Barry L. Ross, Professor of Old Testament Anderson University School of Theology .

How to Write an Exegesis Paper with Library Resources.
Author: Dr. Kenneth D. Litwak
This guide was created by Dr. Kenneth D. Litwak, Reference Instructor, University Libraries.

Eisegesis:  A Genesis virus
Author: Ken Ham
WORLD ALERT: A deadly virus is sweeping through church members worldwide. Investigators have found that the reason this virus is fairly specific to church attendees is that it has found safe harbour in many seminaries and Bible colleges… (Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary defines ‘eisegesis’ as: an interpretation, esp. of Scripture, that expresses the interpreter’s own ideas, bias, or the like, rather than the meaning of the text.)

Endless Hell Ended Author: Timothy J. Barnett
…I found out that the same kind of mercy and justice that I naturally respect is the same type of loving kindness that is woven into every aspect of God’s dealings with man, including final judgment matters as related to hell. The relief and release of this discovery was instrumental in deepening my love for God, and intensifying my desire to be a productive ambassador for Him…
Download free pdf version download of the book.

Interpretive Models for the Book of Revelation as a Whole
Author: Greg Herrick
There have traditionally been four or five schools of thought on the interpretive framework of the book of Revelation as a whole. In this discussion we will focus on the following five views: historicist, idealist, preterist, mostly future and moderately futuristic.

Israel’s Present Hardening and Future Salvation: An Exegesis of Romans 11:25-32
Author: Greg Herrick
In this final paragraph in Romans 9-11, Paul has shown the reason for Israel’s present disobedience, namely, that she has been hardened by God and unable to believe as a nation. In making this plain, he has accomplished two things…

Numerical Features of the Psalms and Other Selected Texts
Author: Casper Labuschagne
A Logotechnical Quantitative Structural Analysis of the Psalms. Logotechnique, or quantitative structural analysis, is a systematic formal investigation of the architecture of biblical texts.

Parallelism in Hebrew Writing
Author: Dennis Bratcher
A common literary feature of Hebrew poetry in the Old Testament is called parallelism, in which the words of two or more lines of text are directly related in some way. This feature can be found in any poetic passage, and sometimes even in narrative…

Standard Bearers
A textual Criticism site that seeks to establish the pure inerrant text of the Bible. Our mission is to give witness that the Word of God is 100% pure, inerrant in the copy (Bible) as in the original, the autograph..

The Good Samaritan Luke 10:25-37
Author: Matt Slick
Theme: What must I do to inherit eternal life?

Textual Criticism 101: Theological, Faith-Based versus Naturalistic, Rationalistic
Author:Louis Kole

“Textual criticism introduced by Princeton Seminary is the Trojan horse in Reformed, evangelical, and fundamentalist Bibliology today. No Reformed, evangelical or fundamentalist “scholar,” without wanting to look stupid or foolish, would dare affirm without equivocation that the Bible in our hands today is infallible and inerrant, without any mistake.”

General Articles

A Chronological Study of Paul’s Ministry
Author: Dennis McCallum
A Sequential outline of the movements of Paul by major periods with suggested dates.

A Woman’s Supplication Brings Blessing to a Nation
Author: J. Hampton Keathley, III
On the one hand, there is Hannah, a devoted mother, who devotes herself and her child to God, and herself to the child’s training to bring him up to know, worship, and serve the Lord. On the other hand, in Eli we have a defective father who, though he may have been devoted in his duties as a priest, was derelict in his duties as a parent…

Ancient Jewish Marriage Traditions & their Fulfilment in Jesus the Messiah
Author: Bill Risk
To truly appreciate what it must have meant to Jesus’ disciples when He taught them about His Kingdom using marriage metaphors, or to Paul’s readers when he described Christ as the husband of the Church, we need to discover what marriage and courtship were like in First Century Israel…

Apostles
A list o f the Apostles, giving their names and meaning of names, relationships, place of origin, and occupation and other miscellaneous data.

Cain’s Wife—Who Was She?
Author: Ken Ham
Is She the Most-Talked-About Wife in History? We don’t even know her name, yet she was discussed at the Scopes Trial, mentioned in the movies Inherit the Wind 1 and Contact,2 and talked about in countries all over the world for hundreds of years. Skeptics of the Bible have used Cain’s wife time and again to try to discredit the book of Genesis as a true historical record…

Christianity and the Birth of Science
Author: Michael Bumbulis, Ph.D
In an attempt to account for the origin of modern science, I will argue that the Judeo-Christian world view played a crucial role in this birth. I will cite four lines of evidence to support this hypothesis and respond to objections at the appropriate places.

Dinosaurs in the Bible
Author: Jeffrey J Harrison
There are many references to dinosaur-like creatures, or if you prefer the older name, dragons, in the Bible.  This is not unique to Scripture.  Ancient literature from around the world is filled with references to these frightening monsters, which display many striking similarities to one another, as well as to modern scientific descriptions of dinosaurs and other extinct reptiles.

To the Ends of the Earth
Author: Jeff Harrison
Insights from Israel into the Bible, Jesus the Messiah, and the Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith. Incredible discoveries in Israel and the Middle East help us understand Jesus and the Bible more accurately than for almost two thousand years…

Mystery of the Myth: The Ten Lost Tribes
Author: Chuck Missler
The myth of the “Ten Lost Tribes” is the basis for “British- Israelism” and other colorful legends, but these stories have no real Biblical basis. They are based upon misconceptions derived from the misreading of various Bible passages…

Our Relationship with God: Experiencing the Future Now (Romans 5:1-5)
Author: Greg Herrick
I wonder how may of us will stand before the Father someday, saying, “If only I’d known, if only I’d known…how much you loved me. You see, we go throughout our whole lives so engrossed, so demonically captivated by our own agendas and schedules and feats for God, that we are basically strangers to his presence.

Paul and Civil Obedience in Romans 13:1-7
Author: Greg Herrick
We live in a generation in which public opinion of those in political leadership is probably at an all time low. he purpose of this study is to focus on what Paul had to say about authorities in Romans 13 in order that we Christians might better understand how it is that God would have us relate to those whom he, in is his sovereignty, has placed over us.

Sketches of Jewish Social Life
Author: Edersheim, Alfred
In Sketches of Jewish Social Life, Alfred Edersheim has done modern readers a favor. The Old and New Testaments are about a time and society very different from today, with different customs and idioms. Consequently, reading the Old and New Testaments may seem like entering a strange world. Edersheim has tried to make that world less strange.

Some Initial Reflections on Slavery in the New Testament
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
Slavery in the first century was quite different from slavery in early American history. For one thing, Roman slaves were either taken as the spoils of war or were such because they sold themselves into slavery (known as “bond-servant”). They were often well-educated…

he 400 Years between the Old and New Testaments
Author: Ray C. Stedman
What happened in these four hundred so-called “silent” years after the last of the inspired prophets spoke and the first of the New Testament writers began to write?

The Arabs in the Holy Land – Natives or Aliens?
Author: Dr. Harry Mandelbaum
Unknown to most of the world population, the origin of the “Palestinian” Arabs’ claim to the Holy Land spans a period of a meager 30 years – a drop in the bucket compared to the thousands of years of the region’s rich history.

The Ark of the Covenant
Author: Leen Ritmeyer PhD
The Ark of the Covenant was undoubtedly the most holy piece of furniture ever made, if it can be referred to as such. It consisted of a rectangular chest made of shittim wood and covered over with gold, and inside it Moses placed the two tablets of the law…

The Bible on Environmental Conservation: A 21st Century Prescription
Author: William T Johnson
It may come as a surprise to some, but the Bible has a great deal to say about the environment and its conservation some 20 centuries since it was written. Perhaps among the most surprised will be Bible-toting church goers who may have never heard a sermon related to the “environmental crisis”…

The Descendants Of Lot
Author: Lambert Dolphin
The life of Abraham’s nephew Lot—and the record of Lot\’s descendants—is a subject especially relevant today. According to Jesus (as recorded in Luke\’s gospel) world conditions at the close of our present age would come to resemble “the days of Lot.” The Bible has a lot to say about Abraham’s nephew and his place in the ancient world, but it is a profitable study with broad implications for the day in which we live.

The Great I-AM of God in Biblical Covenant Relationship with His People in the Old Testament World
Author: John E. McKenna
The scholars were certainly right to reject the abstract categories of the Enlightenment of the past, but they were not right to let go of God’s Being in Himself what He actually is in covenant with His People. We are to know Him for who He truly is in covenant relationship with Himself in the way that He has given Himself to be known with us…

The marriage Supper of the Lamb
Author: Lambert Dolphin
“The use of the figure of a bride to represent the church in her relationship to Christ has in mind the oriental pattern in which marriage is contemplated as having three major steps: (1) the legal marriage (2) subsequent to the legal marriage, the bridegroom according would go with his companions to the house of the bride to claim his bride for himself and to take her back to his own home; (3) the bridal procession would be followed by the marriage feast..

The Main Covenants Of Yahweh
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Brief description of the various covenants in the Bible.

Where was Jesus born? Was it in a stable, cave, or a home?
An old and familiar part of the Christmas story goes like this: Mary and Joseph traveled from Nazareth to Bethlehem shortly before the birth of Jesus. The night they arrived in Bethlehem there were no rooms available in the local inns… But, what was the real story?

The Meaning of Sodom and Gomorrah
Author: Lambert Dolphin
The purpose of this short paper is to examine how the Bible shows that the judgment and destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah because of their (largely) homosexual promiscuity is not the most important issue the church of Jesus Christ has to deal with today. The place where deep repentance and reform is most needed is within the church. This becomes crystal clear simply by following the thread of references to Sodom through the Bible.

Toward A Theological Understanding Of Postmodernism
Author: Daniel J. Adams
Defining and understanding the concept of “Postmodernity”: The postmodern era can best be understood in terms of four major characteristics: the decline of the West, the legitimation crisis, the intellectual marketplace, and the process of deconstruction.Indeed, we can say that these four characteristics define the meaning of postmodernity.

Eschatology

666 Mark of the Beast
There are a vast number of theories regarding the Antichrist and the mark of the Beast. Luther and the early Reformers all believed that the Papacy was the antichrist and that 666 was his mark. This article takes a new look at this theory…

Babylon: Its Coming Destruction!
Author: N. W. Hutchings
A plausible explanation is that Babylon is, of course, the Babylon of 600 B.C. that was a world empire, and it is also the one that destroyed the Temple and took the Jews into captivity. However, Mystery Babylon appears at the end of the age as we see the revival of the Roman Empire in the European Union within a world system, a New World Order, touted through international entities like the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Club of Rome…

Beginnings and Ends: Eucharist and Eschatology
Author: Jason Fout
Recently, studies of the Eucharist [1] have begun to reclaim the importance of eschatology as an image and setting for the celebration of Holy Communion. [2] This “rediscovery” of the eschaton has crossed the boundaries of denominations, churchmanship and national identity, contributing both to theological reflection and liturgical revision…

Daniel: Relating Prophecy to Piety
Author: Bob Deffinbaugh
What makes the Book of Daniel most profitable for some makes it most problematic for others. Daniel is one of the great Old Testament prophets, and these prophecies have a great deal to say about things yet to come. For the Bible-believing Christian this puts Daniel on the “must read” list. For the unbelieving skeptic, it puts the message and meaning of this great book on the “hit list.”…

Daniel’s Seventy Weeks
Author: Phil Karayan
A detailed exposition of the “seventy weeks” in Daniel; to understand Daniel’s 70 Weeks, we need to understand God’s unique relationship with the people and land of Israel.

Earthquakes And The End Times: A Geological And Biblical Perspective
Author: Steven A. Austin and Mark L. Strauss
Many writers claim that the decade of the 1990’s has experienced a pronounced increase in both the frequency and intensity of earthquakes as compared to the earlier decades . This coincidence of Jesus’ prophetic statement and recent seismic events is viewed by these writers and teachers as clear demonstration of the nearness of the return of Christ, but is this really the case?

Endless Hell Ended
Author: Doug Smith
It is not possible to prove fairly from the scriptures that sinners will suffer endlessly in hell; nevertheless, this is a tradition honored position—a position adopted blindly by most evangelicals, fundamentalists and pentecostals without scriptural re-analysis. Available scriptural evidence encourages the more sensible conclusion that sinners will not suffer endlessly in hell.

Examining an Ancient Pre-Trib Rapture Statement
Author Thomas Ice
Critics of pretribulationism sometimes state that belief in the rapture is a doctrinal development of recent origin. They argue that the doctrine of the rapture or any semblance of it was completely unknown before the early 1800s…

False Messiahs, Antichrists and Modern Caesars
Author: Lambert Dolphin
Every generation certain currents of fear sweep the western world about the possibility that we are now in the time of the end when a great world ruler, whom some call the Antichrist, will come to power. Of course we are nearer that time now than ever before, and it could well be upon us in our generation…

Has Bible Prophecy Already been Fulfilled
Author: Thomas Ice
A Critique of Preterism. (Preterists argue that major prophetic portions of Scripture such as the Olivet Discourse and the Book of Revelation were fulfilled in events surrounding the A.D. 70 destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.)

Hell is a Christian Hoax
Author: L Ray Smith
Is there a literal place of punishment called “hell”? is the punishment of this hell everlasting-eternal? There is no doctrine on earth that is more false or more damnable than the Christianized pagan doctrine of endless torture for which there is no redeeming value or purpose whatsoever.

The Rapture and Israel
Author: William Robert West
For the most part the Premillennialists beliefs are a revival of the beliefs of the Jews in the time of Christ. Israel was looking for an earthly king who would drive Rome out, conquer other nations, and restore the Kingdom as it was in the time of David. Premillennialists say this is what Christ came to do but that God did not foresee the Jews rejecting and killing Christ, but because they did, the restoring of the kingdom was put off and the church age is an unforeseen substitute

Immortality or Resurrection
Author: William Robert West Is
“The Wages Of Sin Death” Or “Eternal Life With Torment In Hell? What does the Bible say about an immortal soul and/or spirit? Together soul and spirit are used almost 1,100 times in the King James Version, but not one time is immortal ever used in the same verse with either one…

Interpretive Models for the Book of Revelation as a Whole
Author: Greg Herrick Greg
A discussion of the four traditional models for interpreting the book of Revelation

Misunderstood Parables?
Author: Chuck Missler
Could the “Kingdom Parables” of Matthew 13 relate to the future of the church? In this chapter, Jesus presented His disciples seven prophetic illustrations that deserve very careful study…

Palestine: The Coming Storm Center
Author: Harry Rimmer, D.D., ScD
Two lessons from history may shed light on prophetic passages. The first of these facts is that there have always been focal points in human conduct or epochs in human relationships.The second point of our premise is the fact that there are also certain geographical foci in human history…

Pretribulation or Prewrath?
Author: Ron Graff
Recent publications by Robert Van Kampen and Marvin Rosenthal have presented a new variation in the study of the timing of the Rapture. They have coined the expression “prewrath Rapture” for their position. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the key aspects of their theory and compare it to the teachings of the pretribulation Rapture.

Revelation: A Panorama of the Gospel Age
Author: Fred P. Miller.
A Commentary on the Book of Revelation, historical view. There are many schemes of interpretation of the Book of Revelation but only three can be thought of as major methods. The position taken in this book is that most of the symbols in Revelation have been fulfilled as historical epochs through which the Church has lived and survived.

Studies in Revelation
Author: Hampton Keathley
Because it contains a large amount of symbolism and because of the faulty approaches or methods of interpretation applied to its study, many have a difficult time grasping its meaning. It has become a book which is the object of the widest possible divergence of interpretation…

The 1000 Year Millennium
Author: Steve Wohlberg
Massive confusion exists within Christian churches about the “Millennium,” a unique thousand-year period depicted in the book of Revelation. Contrary to popular opinion, the biblical Millennium is a time of desolation and ruin, followed by more rebellion, then judgment, and finally, re-creation…

The Concept of the Remnant
Author: Lambert Dolphin
The concept of a remnant or the remnant is an important theme woven through the Bible, especially in the Old Testament. The term remnant can apply to (a) a historical remnant such as those few who survive a battle or a catastrophe, (b) the faithful remnant who remain loyal to God despite persecution peer-pressure and testings, and (c) the eschatological remnant who survive times of great judgments in history culminating finally in the second coming of Messiah.

The Destruction of the Finally Impenitent
Author: Clark H. Pinnock
The aspect of eschatology which we are studying here is the doctrine of divine judgment and hell. As in so many matters, for better or worse, it was Augustine who gave the church its standard way of thinking about hell, a way which would become dominant for the next millennium and a half. Specifically he taught us to view hell as a condition of endless torment of conscious persons in body and soul…

The Antichrist: Coming Leader of the World
Author: Lambert Dolphin
The Greek word antichristos appears only in the writings of the Apostle John, in fact only in his epistles. He speaks of the the many antichrists who are the forerunners of the antichrist (1 John 2:18, 22; 2 John 7, 1 John 4:3). The word antichrist can mean “instead of Christ,” that is a counterfeit messiah, or it can mean “one opposed to Christ, but assuming His role.” Probably a combination of the two meanings in correct.

The Apocalypse Of John And The Rapture Of The Church: A Reevaluation
Author: Michael J. Svigel
For all of the attention given to the rapture of the Church by students and teachers of eschatology, one wonders why the doctrine of the catching up of the saints described by Paul in 1 Thessalonians 4:17 is not more clearly mentioned in John’s Apocalypse!

The Exact Knowledge of Sheol/Hades
Author: Dirk Waren
This book will PROVE biblically that the state of the unsaved dead is sleeping in “Sheol” until Judgment Day.

The two Babylons
Author: Hislop, Alexander
A comparison of Rome to Babylon. An exposition of the long held Protestant belief that Rome is the Babylon of the Book of Revelation.

The “Temple of God” in 2 Thessalonians 2:4: Literal or Metaphorical?
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
In 2 Thess 2:4, Paul speaks of the antichrist as follows: “He opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, and as a result he takes his seat in God’s temple, displaying himself as God…

What Happens When We Die?
Many are seeking answers on death; like what happens when you die? Do some soar to heaven while others descend to hell? Can the living actually communicate with dead and do the dead haunt the house they used to live in? The truth about death can be found only in the Bible.

Hermeneutics

Body and Soul Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture
Author: Dennis Bratcher
Are we really Dichotomous or even Trichotomous beings? There is much in Christian tradition, and thereby in various church doctrines, that has its roots in philosophical ideas and speculation rather than in Scripture…

Patterns for Life: Structure, Genre, and Theology in Psalms
Author: Dennis Bratcher
Many of the Psalms have recurring patterns of structure, flow of thought, and even themes and compositional techniques. From this recognition, scholars developed a field of study called form criticism or “analysis of forms”…

Philosophy and Methodology Bible-Based Hermeneutics
Author: J. Richard Fugate

It is truly a word-by-word approach in comprehending the most precise meaning of the Word of God.”

The Holy Spirit and Hermeneutics
Author: Daniel B. Wallace
The relation of the Holy Spirit to hermeneutics is a hot issue among evangelicals today. On a popular level, there has always been a large misunderstanding about the Spirit’s role.-This brief essay is a preliminary attempt at articulating the role of the Holy Spirit in relation to the interpretation of Scripture.