African Christianity

African Initiated Churches
Extensive repository of research and articles on AICs (These are Christian bodies in Africa that were established as a result of African initiative, rather than on the initiative of foreign missionary organisations.)

Christian Africa

This site intends to serve three aims: (a) to provide information about Christianity and the African World (the continent and Americas); and (b) to offer a guide to African Christian\’s global identity in the context of culture and personality. (c) Protect Africa\’s unique Christian Orthodoxies. It is also a cultural and historical site on a progressive understanding of African traditional Christianity

African Theology and Social Change: An Anthropological Approach
Author: Ian Ritchie, Ph.D
In the period since 1960 independent Africa has seen the rapid growth of a new group of African Christian theologians developing a new discourse within the churches planted by European and American missions. It has been established for some time that the theology of this group has gone through a first phase…


Lessons in Mission from an African Initiated Church: A Case Study of the Zimbabwean VaPostori of Johane Masowe
Author: Robert Reese
Most visitors to southern, central, or east Africa have seen members of the various VaPostori sects, even if they do not know the name…

Bible and Culture in African Theology
Author: Ernest Munachi Ezeogu
Africa is on record as the continent with the highest numerical Christian growth rate in the world. And the Bible has been identified as a major contributor to this phenomenal growth of Christianity in Africa. Given the oral tradition that informs the background of African Christians and the literary tradition that the Bible represents, the question of the interaction between the Bible and culture in African Christianity becomes an intriguing one…

Missionaries, Xhosa Clergy & The Suppression Of Traditional Customs
Author: Wallace G. Mills
In the second half of the nineteenth century, a number of traditional Xhosa social customs were opposed by missionaries who tried to insist that their Xhosa converts abstain from all observance or participation on pain of discipline, even expulsion from the church.

Millennial Christianity, British Imperialism, and African Nationalism
Author: Wallace G. Mills
Religion, and specifically Christianity, is often portrayed as a tool of the dominant classes. Yet religion has helped shape the political ideas and the behaviour of most groups and classes in South Africa in ways that are more complex, contradictory, and changing than this portrayal suggest.

Atoms and Ancestors
Author: Frederick B. Welbourn (1968)
Prof. Hexham cites this book as “a classic introduction to African religions.”
Full text of the book is available on this page.

Pluriformity And Contextuality In African Initiated Church
Author: Revd Dr Allan Anderson
“Pluriformity” refers to the fact of variety whilst “contextuality” refers to the ability to relate to a given situation or context. It is this combination of variety and relevance which distinguishes the African religious traditions I shall refer to primarily in this paper, those movements originating in Africa rather than in the African diaspora. A sensitive study of these African traditions will enrich the whole church…

Half a Century of African Christian Theologies
Author: Tinyiko Sam Maluleke (Department of Missiology, University of South Africa)
The topic of this essay is an ambitious one; I cannot and do not mean to satisfy it. Proceeding topically rather than chronologically, I wish to highlight certain themes and sub-themes with which African theology has been occupied in the twentieth century. From these, I hope to sketch an outline of the emerging face of African Christian theologies in the next century.

The African Independent Churches: Judgement through Terminology?
Author: Stephen Hayes
A concise history and description of the African Independent Churches.

Christianity in Africa.

A comprehensive directory of websites devoted to Christianity in Africa.

Religions in Ethiopia

This page of the “Ethiopian Treasures” website give an insight into the history and practice of religion in Ethiopia. It has numerous links to other websites and to papers on the subject.